El calendario de adviento (de ciencia) 2016 del Instituto Max-Planck

El calendario de Adviento del Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, presenta una imagen de ciencia –y su explicación– cada día.

Hasta el 24 de diciembre, se pueden ir descubriendo las sorpresas científicas escondidas tras cada número con un simple ‘clic’.

Y el día 1 de diciembre esconde… Very tough and extremely flexible:

Día 1: Very tough and extremely flexible. © MPG

Día 1: Very tough and extremely flexible. © MPG

Bones are not just a static support structure, but a living organ. They can adapt to mechanical loads, heal after injuries and are an important part of the human hormonal system. All this requires a close interplay between hard, mineralized tissue and a highly specialized cell network. This picture shows the complex structures in the thigh bone of an adult: tiny 0.1 millimetre thick cavities, through which blood vessels pass, are concentrically surrounded by mineralized fibres (white) with different orientations. Cavities in the tissue contain the bone cells, osteocytes, which are connected to one another by innumerable, incredibly fine channels (red). Mechanical strain results in liquid flows through the channels, which are registered by the cells and converted into biochemical signals. These transmitters are transported to the blood vessels via the network and distributed throughout the entire organism.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

Hay que tener paciencia para ir descubriendo las imágenes escondidas tras cada día del mes de diciembre (hasta el día 24)… porque el botón correspondiente se activa ese mismo día.

¡Una gran iniciativa para disfrutar y aprender!

–oOo–

Día 2 de diciembre nos muestra A winter forest made up of plant hair:

Día 1: A winter forest made up of plant hair. © MPG

Día 2: A winter forest made up of plant hair. © MPG

Densely packed tiny plant hairs cover the surface of the blossom of kangaroo paw, which grows in the sunny, humid parts of Western Australia. The iridescent colours attract honeyeaters – songbirds that suck out the nectar using their long, curved beaks, transferring the plants’ pollen in the process. The colourfulness of the tiny hairs is due to the pigments they contain, which are known as phenylphenalenones. This group of natural plant substances also play a major role in protecting against pests, for example in banana plants. Bananas are, in many countries, a staple food and an important export product. However, high-yield varieties are especially vulnerable to pests, especially fungi and threadworms. In contrast, varieties that produce high concentrations of phenylphenalenones are much more resilient. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology are investigating the ecological role of this plant substance – whether in bananas or kangaroo paws.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 3 de diciembre se centra en Mirror, mirror, …

Día 3: Mirror, mirror, ... © MPG

Día 3: Mirror, mirror, … © MPG

Power plants? Rocket engines? Mega air conditioning system? No, what you see here are seven complex mirror modules of eROSITA (extended roentgen survey with an imaging telescope array). From 2018 onwards, the ultra-modern telescope will survey the entire sky in X-ray light more accurately than ever before. What is more, the Russian-German mission is to chart the hidden universe and precisely determine the proportions of dark matter and dark energy. For this purpose, the observatory operates from a location of 1.5 million kilometres from Earth, measuring some 100,000 galaxy clusters. In order for eROSITA to absorb the high-energy X-radiation, the scientists provided each of the mirror modules with 54 gold-plated nickel shells. The surface roughness is less than less than a millionth of a millimetre. The high-tech instrument will be mounted on a Russian satellite platform in the next few weeks. Its take-off from the Russian space aerodrome Baikonur is schedule for early 2018. 

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 4 de diciembre se ilumina con Illuminated advertising for Buddha’s temples:

Día 4: Illuminated advertising for Buddha's temples. © MPG

Día 4: Illuminated advertising for Buddha’s temples. © MPG

Twice a year Kanchi’in, a Buddhist temple in Tokyo, organizes the 24-hour ceremony ‘Fudan Nenbutsu” – a chanting prayer to Buddha that last all day. The focus is on Buddhist songs, which are transmitted via livestreaming over the internet. At night, the temple is illuminated by candle-lit lanterns made of paper, on which people have written their wishes. At the event’s closing, the abbot reads out the texts. The ceremony is intended to encourage people to take part in a religious ceremony. Similar to the problem faced by churches in European cities, temples in Japan are attracting fewer and fewer visitors. Ethnologists are interested in the strategies that Buddhist temples in Tokyo employ to modernize and attempt to reverse the decline. Especially in the Japanese capital, one of the world’s largest and most expensive urban centres, there is a lot of pressure to actually make use of the religious buildings.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 5 de diciembre, unas criaturas muy, muy pequeñas, y un poco ‘feas’ en Bristly little creatures:

Día 5: Bristly little creatures. © MPG

Día 5: Bristly little creatures. © MPG

This mini-monster is the two-week-old larvae of the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii. It is roughly half a millimetre long and lives at the bottom of marine areas near to the coast. It uses its protruding fine bristles to protect itself against enemies and for movement. Platynereis is a popular model organism among geneticists and neuroscientists. It is easy to keep in an aquarium and happy to live on a diet of spinach and dry fish food. An artificial lunar cycle causes the animals to reproduce. Worms with particular properties can thus be bred through genetic engineering. Researchers are using them to investigate which neuronal mechanisms govern the migration movement of plankton. To do so, they combine genetics, neurobiology, behavioural studies and imaging techniques. The studies provide insights into how the nervous system works in marine organisms and increase our general understanding of animal behaviour.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 6 de diciembre, una bella danza, Cosmic dance:

Día 6: Cosmic dance. © MPG

Día 6: Cosmic dance. © MPG

Albert Einstein first postulated them in his general theory of relativity over 100 years ago. But gravitational waves were only directly measured for the first time on 14 September 2015. These tiny distortions in space-time occur almost constantly in the universe; however, they can only be ‘heard’ by using highly sensitive detectors when very large masses move very quickly – such as when two black holes collide. This was the very event that astronomers observed in September 2015. This image depicts the source of the waves as dark spots: the two black holes with masses of 29 and 36 times that of the Sun respectively, dance around one another and will merge into one in just a few moments. The signal detected on Earth provides information about the invisible space and the nature of gravitation. This opens up a completely new window on the universe for gravitational wave astronomy.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 7 de diciembre se dedica a las nubes High above the clouds:

Día 7: High above the clouds. © MPG

Día 7: High above the clouds. © MPG

High Altitude, Long Range’: two key features of the HALO research aircraft are already revealed in its name. With a maximum flight altitude of more than 15,000 metres and a range of over 10,000 kilometres, it can stay in the air for up to ten hours. As a result, all regions of the Earth’s atmosphere become accessible to research – from the Poles to the Tropics, and even the most remote regions above the oceans. The Gulfstream Jet is equipped with numerous air passages for measuring instruments and special optical windows for remote sensing devices. Underneath the fuselage and wings, additional scientific instruments can be installed. With HALO, Max Planck researchers are investigating, among other things, the development of the extensive cloud systems in the tropics and the influence of the monsoon on the self-purifying power of the atmosphere.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 8 de diciembre trata de nuestro cerebro en Connections to memories:

Día 8: Connections to memories. © MPG

Día 8: Connections to memories. © MPG

How we perceive our environment is based on the calculations of our brain. The ‘experienced’ adult brain knows what to expect and, for the most part, processes environmental stimuli in a stable manner. Yet it is able to respond to change swithout forgetting what it has learned. To find out how this works, researchers observed single nerve cells in the visual mouse cortex. One eye of the animals was temporarily covered. As expected by the researchers, many of the cells compensated for this disorder by processing signals from the other, open eye. However, once they receive information from ‘their’ eye again, the neurons return to their original state. What is decisive here is the ability of the individual neurons, not of the cell cluster. The individual images of one row each show a single nerve cell; each partial image of a colour block corresponds to one study. The activity of the nerve cells was made visible by means of dyes.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 9 de diciembre nos invita a exporar nuestro cuerpo con Mini submarines on great tour:

Día 9: Mini submarines on great tour. © MPG

Día 9: Mini submarines on great tour. © MPG

Tiny robots that swim through our body, track down diseases, or deliver drugs to their destination – what sounds like science fiction would be a milestone for medicine. This is why scientists are experimenting with tiny vehicles that can be controlled by fluids and that one day may be able to navigate through our bloodstream. For inspiration, the researchers turn to nature – to ciliates, for example, which are able to self-propel through water by the synchronized movement of thousands of extremely thin filaments on their outer skin. This picture shows a microrobot which can be driven by light. The tiny, floating body, which is just a millimetre long, consists of a liquid-crystal elastomer which expands when illuminated. When the researchers move green light across the surface, wavy protrusions are produced similar to the peristalsis of rain worm. They drive the microswimmer forward in the opposite direction at the speed of about 7.5 millimetres per hour.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 10 de diciembre habla sobre… ¡confesiones! Confession for beginners:

Día 10: Confession for beginners. © MPG

Día 10: Confession for beginners. © MPG

Those who go to confession are expected to examine their conscience. Confession manuals have provided believers with guidance for centuries. In the parts of Central and South America conquered by Spain, the confession manuals nevertheless served an even wider range of purposes: They helped to establish Christian principles in the culture and everyday lives of the indigenous people who had to take in the new norms quickly and continuously. An insightful example is the bilingual confession manual of the Franciscan priest Alonso de Molina, who emigrated to Mexico as a child and spoke the Aztec language Náhuatl fluently. Such books provide vital evidence for researchers at the Max Planck Institute for European Legal History. The legal historians are exploring how the Spanish succeeded in asserting their legal system in the conquered territories in such a short time despite great distances and few personnel. The confession manuals support the theory that the clergy played a key role in establishing the new legal system.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 11 de diciembre habla sobre la compleja red de nuestro sistema circulatorio sanguíneo: Unbridled network.

Día 11: Unbridled network. © MPG

Día 11: Unbridled network. © MPG

Blood vessels are the body’s lifelines. Their growth ensures that the organs are supplied with nutrition in good time during development. The development of new blood vessels is instrumental in repair and regeneration processes in adulthood. Researchers have now discovered a molecular switch that controls this growth: the transcription factor FOXO1. It is active in the endothelial cells lining the inside of the blood vessels and regulates their metabolic and cell division activities. This enables the cells to react quickly to changing requirements, such as a lack of oxygen or food in the organs, and to create new vessels if necessary. Without FOXO1, there is excessive vessel growth, as is typical in malignant tumours, for example. The discovery provides a possible approach for new types of treatment. The image shows the dense network of veins in the retina of a mouse where FOXO1 has been genetically deactivated. Various fluorescent markers make the blood vessels visible.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 12 de diciembre trata de fusión nuclear: Cloudy with bright prospects.

Día 12: Cloudy with bright prospects. © MPG

Día 12: Cloudy with bright prospects. © MPG

Nuclear fusion, or more precisely the fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium, could be a clean and affordable energy source of the future – modelled on the example of our Sun. The technology is already being explored today, for example at the ASDEX Upgrade facility in Garching near Munich where the physical foundations for a fusion power plant are being developed. This also includes understanding the turbulences in the fuel, a super-hot hydrogen plasma. The more turbulences, the faster the plasma cools down and the less profitable a power plant would become. A newly developed measuring device shoots helium gas directly into the hot plasma through a capillary tube. Through collision with the flying plasma particles, the helium becomes energetically excited into glowing. Depending on the density and temperature of the plasma electrons, the intensity of the spectral lines shifts and the plasma cloud (here yellow) changes its colour. With the aid of a spectrometer, important information about the plasma can be obtained.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 13 de diciembre nos invita a mirar por el microscopio: Kaleidoscopic molecular diversity.

Día 13: Kaleidoscopic molecular diversity. © MPG

Día 13: Kaleidoscopic molecular diversity. © MPG

The view through the microscope conjures up memories of a kaleidoscope from childhood days. But these are not colourful glass stones, but naproxen crystals glowing in iridescent interference colours. The analgesic and antiperspirant active ingredient, which is also used against inflammation, occurs in two mirror image molecular forms, which are referred to as (R) and (S)naproxen. Only pure (S)naproxen is used as a drug, because compared to the 1:1 mixture of both forms, it is 28 times more effective. In order to optimize the industrial production of a substance, researchers use its physicochemical properties. This includes the melting point and also their behaviour the melting and re-solidifying – observed here for pure (S) naproxen (left), the 1: 1 mixture (right), and the contact layer formed between the two.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 14 de diciembre recuerda el famoso icono de resistencia de 1989 en la plaza de Tiananmen: Icon of resistance.

Día 14: Icon of resistance. © MPG

Día 14: Icon of resistance. © MPG

June 5, 1989: one single young man in a white shirt, his jacket and two shopping bags in his hands, stands in front of a column of tanks on Tiananmen Square. To this day, no one knows who he is, but ‘tank man’ has become an icon of resistance – and the subject of art. A work of the Spanish artist Fernando Sánchez shows the anonymous Chinese man 5,000 times: as small green plastic figurines, produced in a Chinese toy factory, and set up in the entrance hall of the Albertinum in Dresden. They bring the Terracotta Army of Xi’an to mind, one of China’s most famous sights. Images of resistance play an important political role. They are used daily and in large numbers and also shape the repertoire of contemporary art.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 15 de diciembre habla de células madre pluripotentes inducidas: Microscopic little multi-talents.

Día 15: Microscopic little multi-talents. © MPG

Día 15: Microscopic little multi-talents. © MPG

iPS cells (induced pluripotent stem cells) are true all-rounders: they are able to develop into almost every cell type in our body. They can be generated by reprogramming connective tissue cells, i.e. reverting them to their embryonic state. It is thus possible to establish patient-specific cell cultures, which can serve as a tailor-made model for the study of diseases. Here, scientists have grown astrocytes from iPS cells. These star-shaped brain cells play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which leads to complete muscle paralysis. The astrocytes secrete certain factors which have a toxic effect on motor neurons, causing their degeneration. Researchers use the cultured astrocytes as a model to better understand this process and identify novel therapeutics for the currently incurable disease.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 16 de diciembre habla de la Vía Láctea: Virtual galaxy.

Día 16: Virtual galaxy. © MPG

Día 16: Virtual galaxy. © MPG

The Milky Way that is visible in our skies is part of a spiral galaxy. In addition to gas and dust, it contains about 200 billion stars, most of which are concentrated in a thin disk. This disk is not flat but has waves and warps. How do these large-scale structures arise? To answer this question, researchers recreate the formation of spiral galaxies on the computer. Their simulations show that close encounters with satellite galaxies and more distant flybys of massive companions are the most frequent stellar drivers. Based on strong tidal torques, they can cause the formation of the aforementioned vertical perturbations. The accretion of cold gas in the environment of the galaxy can also form such structures. The analysis of the data also reveals that at present about 70percent of the simulated galactic discs show strong vertical distortions. About half of them have integral sign warps, the other half wave patterns.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 17 de diciembre habla de cristales: A star with complexes.

Día 17: A star with complexes. © MPG

Día 17: A star with complexes. © MPG

Porous carbon materials are used in technology and research in the most various fields today, for example in gas storage, heterogeneous catalysis, or in electrochemistry. With their extremely enlarged surface area, good conductivity and high thermal and chemical resistance, they are particularly well suited as electrode materials for so-called supercondensers. In order to produce porous carbon materials in a manner that is as uncomplicated as possible, porous crystalline materials, so-called coordination polymers, can be used as starting compounds. Such a crystalline metal complex can be seen here. It consists of squaric acid, which is arranged around zinc ions in a characteristic manner. The properties of the crystals can be determined by the choice of the synthesis conditions, such as metal concentration and temperature. This makes it possible to “tailor” the morphology and porosity of the coordination polymers and thus also the carbon material synthesized with their aid.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 18 de diciembre habla de plantas en Amazing popping cress.

Día 18: Amazing popping cress. © MPG

Día 18: Amazing popping cress. © MPG

Since plants do not have muscles, rapid movements like the exploding seed pods of popping cress (Cardamine hirsuta), are rare in the plant kingdom. Explosive shatter of these seed pods is so fast that advanced high-speed cameras are needed to observe the explosion. The key to this lies in an evolutionary innovation. Unlike other plants, where the energy for the explosion originates from the deformation of the seed pods during drying, the popping cress has developed a special kind of fruit wall. This saves elastic energy from growth and expansion and releases it abruptly as soon as the seed is ripe. A hinge, which is formed by the cell wall, similar to a slap bracelet, opens and catapults the seeds into the air. In just half a millisecond, they accelerate from zero to ten metres per second. The blue lines in the image are computer simulations of the coiling seed pod at consecutive time points.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 19 de diciembre habla de nuevos materiales en Miracle material of the future.

Día 19: Miracle material of the future. © MPG

Día 19: Miracle material of the future. © MPG

For the past few years, graphene has caused a sensation in electronics: its ultra-thin carbon layers conduct electricity even better than copper, while the material is extremely tear-resistant and flexible. In order to make electronic components of graphene even faster, researchers are investigating how local defects affect conductivity. Here they have applied a single graphene layer to glass, examining it with via a scanning force microscope. A measuring needle scans the sample and records which forces act between the surface atoms and the atoms at the needle tip. A relief becomes visible – in this case, folds of only a few millions of millimetres in width, which increase the electrical potential. The section shown here has an edge length of roughly two hundredths of a millimetre. The colours reflect the surface potential, which was determined simultaneously by means of a Kelvin probe (yellow-white: high, blue-black: low).

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 20 de diciembre habla de hidrógeno en In the light of hydrogen.

Día 20: In the light of hydrogen. © MPG

Día 20: In the light of hydrogen. © MPG

Hydrogen is by far the most common and simplest chemical element in the universe, it consisting of only one proton and an electron. We could almost imagine our universe as a pure hydrogen universe, with only a minor ‘pollution’ by heavier elements. The neutral hydrogen (HI) emits light at a wavelength of 21 centimetres. This radiation can be observed with radio telescopes. Researchers have mapped the entire northern sky with the 100-meter dish of the observatory in Effelsberg near Bonn over a period of several years. In this image, our home galaxy, the Milky Way, appears as a luminous ribbon stretching across the sky. The Andromeda galaxy is seen as a small, bright ellipse in the middle below the band. The reddish spots on the opposite side are galaxies in just a few million light-years distance.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 21 de diciembre trae iones en Choreography of ions.

Día 21: Choreography of ions. © MPG

Día 21: Choreography of ions. © MPG

Light can process information a lot quicker than electricity. With light, for example, transistors and the bits of a magnetic memory could be switched much faster. A recently discovered mechanism now makes it possible, using terahertz pulses, to excite magnetic waves, so-called magnons, in a magnetic material made of iron, oxygen and the rare-earth element Erbium. Extremely short pulses of radiation, whose wavelength is in between that of infrared light and microwaves, cause the ions of the crystal to rotate. In this picture, the growing radius of the ionic orbits is symbolized by the funnel-shaped spirals. The rotating ions perturb the electronic system of the crystal, resulting in a pulse of magnetic field. This causes the magnetic moments of the Iron ions (blue arrows) to process around their equilibrium positions. As the effect operates at terahertz frequencies, it might become applicable in new devices that operate at such high speeds, leading to low-dissipation ultrafast magnetic storage technologies.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 22 de diciembre habla de marfil en Biblical images in ivory.

Día 22: Biblical images in ivory. © MPG

Día 22: Biblical images in ivory. © MPG

The ivory plaques of the Cathedral of Salerno in southern Italy, known as the Salerno ivories, are without any doubt amongst the most precious pieces of medieval carving. But they also represent one of the greatest challenges in art historical research, as little is known about their place of production, patronage, or function. They represent numerous images from the Old and New Testament. A detailed examination of the panels has shown that they were probably carved from a single, massive ivory tusk of a large West African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Some of the plaques are strongly curved, in some, the typical growth lines of tooth enamel are worked into the elements of the motif. The panels were newly documented in a large photo campaign of the Kunsthistorisches Institut. More than 250 high-resolution photographs now make the Salerno Ivories accessible to researchers all over the world.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Día 23 de diciembre habla de la estructura de las plantas en Botanic puzzle.

Día 23: Botanic puzzle. © MPG

Día 23: Botanic puzzle. © MPG

Plant cells are surrounded by a rigid, yet flexible structure, the cell wall. It gives the plant stability and protects it against pathogens, but also determines the growth potential of the cells. The main component of the cell wall is cellulose, quite long chains of polysaccharide. If plants with strong cell walls are to be used for energy production or as a synthetic raw material, cellulose must at first be split. Scientists are therefore interested in the construction of cell walls, not only to better understand plant growth, but also to learn more about possible ways to break down the macromolecule. Here, the puzzle-shaped pavement cells of the underside of the leaf of the thale cress plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) can be seen. A blue-green dye makes the plasma membrane and the complex shape of these cells visible. The gap openings of the leaf, via which gas and water are discharged, are also clearly visible. In the layer underneath, the chloroplasts in the leaf are visible in purple; the locations of photosynthesis.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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Y el día 24 de diciembre finaliza este especial calendario hablando de blazares en Blazar bonanza.

Día 24: Blazar bonanza. © MPG

Día 24: Blazar bonanza. © MPG

The universe is teeming with galaxies. About every tenth of these Milky Way systems is particularly active, producing significantly more light and energy than can be explained by stars alone. This also applies to the object PKS 1441 + 25. Its power station is situated deep in the heart of the galaxy: a supermassive black hole that weighs as much as a billion of suns. This mass monster attracts matter, which gathers in a brightly lit disc. Part of it is blasted outwards at the speed of light along dual jets pointing in opposite directions. One of the jets is aimed towards Earth, allowing astronomers to get a view of it – similar to gazing into the beam of a strong headlamp. But such a so-called blazar not only transmits visible light. In the case of PKS 1441 + 25, the researchers also recorded gamma radiation. Its light takes about 7.6 billion years to reach Earth, which is about half the age of the universe itself. The astronomers hope that the data will help them to gain more insight into this epoch.

Explicación de la imagen, MPG

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2016-8d0bde51544259196b054e1a13899a919305fd084dd12eb2fd8e9fbd7a51cd70

FIN

1 Response to “El calendario de adviento (de ciencia) 2016 del Instituto Max-Planck”


  1. 1 Marta MS 01/12/2016 en 09:05

    Reblogueó esto en Martams's Blogy comentado:

    El calendario de adviento (de ciencia) 2016 del Instituto Max-Planck

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